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(Death toll from U.S. occupation 1915-1934: 15,000)
(Death toll from U.S.-backed Duvalier dynasty 1957-1986: 100,000)
(Death toll from U.S.-backed coup against Aristide 1991-1994: 4,000)
(Death toll from U.S.-backed coup against Aristide and UN occupation 2004- : tens of thousands)

Instances of Use of United States Forces Abroad 1798-1993

1888 -- Haiti -- December 20. A display of force persuaded the Haitian Government to give up an American steamer which had been seized on the charge of breach of blockade.

1891 -- Haiti. U.S. forces sought to protect American lives and property on Navassa Island.

1914 -- Haiti -- January 29 to February 9, February 20 to 21, October 19. Intermittently U.S. naval forces protected American nationals in a time of rioting and revolution.

1915-34 -- Haiti -- July 28, 1915, to August 15, 1934. U.S. forces maintained order during a period of chronic and threatened insurrection.

200 Years of U.S. Imperialism: Haiti Under Siege

1801 - A former black slave who became a guerrilla leader, Toussaint Louverture, conquers Haiti, abolishing slavery and proclaiming himself governor-general of an autonomous government over all Hispaniola.

1802 - French force led by Napoleon's brother-in-law, Charles Leclerc, fails to conquer Haitian interior.


1804 - Haiti becomes independent; former slave Jean-Jacques Dessalines declares himself emperor.

A history of U.S. embargoes

1806 - Dessalines assassinated and Haiti divided into a black-controlled north and a mulatto-ruled south

1818-43 - Pierre Boyer unifies Haiti, but excludes blacks from power.

1915 - US invades Haiti following black-mulatto friction, which it thought endangered its property and investments in the country.

Leaders promised fast results in Haiti and Iraq—then met hard going

The first U.S. occupation of Haiti

Occupational Hazards: The First US Takeover of Haiti set the Stage for Later Interventions
Taking Haiti: Military Occupation and the Culture of U.S. Imperialism 1915-1940

The U.S. Occupation of Haiti (1915-1934)

Early 20th Century: U.S. Occupation of Haiti

1934 - US withdraws troops from Haiti, but maintains fiscal control until 1947.

Duvalier dictatorships

1956 - Voodoo physician Francois "Papa Doc" Duvalier seizes power in military coup and is elected president a year later.

Post World War II: U.S. Supports Successive Dictatorships

The CIA's Greatest Hits: Haiti

Friendly Dictators
Presidents of Haiti

In 1957 Francois "Papa Doc" Duvalier became Haiti's President-For-Life, establishing a strategic relationship with the US that lasted until 1971, when he was succeeded by his son Jean Claude "Baby Doc" Duvalier. During the 30 years that they ruled with an iron hand, 60,000 Haitians were killed and countless more were tortured by the Duvaliers' Tonton Macoutes death squads. While Haiti became the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere, the Duvaliers enriched themselves by stealing foreign aid money. In 1980, for instance, the International Monetary Fund granted Haiti a $22 million budget supplement. Within weeks, $16 million was "unaccounted for". Baby Doc made Haiti into a trans-shipment point for Colombian cocaine. Nevertheless, as long as Papa and Baby Doc were anti-communists, they could do no wrong in the US government's eyes. Their regime finally ended in 1986, when Baby Doc fled angry mobs of Haitians for asylum in France, with a fortune estimated at $400 million. It has been estimated that under Baby Doc's rule 40,000 Haitians were murdered.

1964 - Duvalier declares himself president-for-life and establishes a dictatorship with the help of the Tontons Macoute militia.

1971 - Duvalier dies and is succeeded by his 19-year-old son, Jean-Claude, or "Baby Doc", who also declares himself president-for-life.

1986 - Baby Doc flees Haiti in the wake of mounting popular discontent and is replaced by Lieutenant-General Henri Namphy as head of a governing council.

1988 - Leslie Manigat becomes president, but is ousted in a coup led by Brigadier-General Prosper Avril, who installs a civilian government under military control.

Democracy, coup and intervention

1990 - Jean-Bertrand Aristide elected president.

1991 - Aristide ousted in a coup led by Brigadier-General Raoul Cedras, triggering sanctions by the US and the Organisation of American States.

Haiti 1986-1994: Who will rid me of this turbulent priest?

Haiti’s Nightmare: The Cocaine Coup & The CIA Connection

Noam Chomsky Traces Underpinnings Of Aristide's Ouster Back To 1991-1994 Coup

The Attempted Character Assassination of Aristide

1993 - UN imposes sanctions after the military regime rejects an accord facilitating Aristide's return.

1994 - Military regime relinquishes power in the face of an imminent US invasion; US forces oversee a transition to a civilian government; Aristide returns.

Emmanuel Constant: The United States Must Practice What It Preaches About Not Harboring Terrorists

1995 - UN peacekeepers begin to replace US troops; Aristide supporters win parliamentary elections; Rene Preval elected in December to replace Aristide as president.

1996 - Preval sworn in as president.

1997-99 - Serious political deadlock; new government named.

1999 - Preval declares that parliament's term has expired and begins ruling by decree following a series of disagreements with deputies.

Aristide's second term

2000 November - Aristide elected president for a second non-consecutive term, amid allegations of irregularities.

2001 July - Presidential spokesman accuses former army officers of trying to overthrow the government after armed men attack three locations, killing four police officers.

2001 December - 30 armed men try to seize the National Palace in an apparent coup attempt; 12 people are killed in the raid, which the government blames on former army members.

2002 July - Haiti is approved as a full member of the Caribbean Community (Caricom) trade bloc.

2003 April - Voodoo recognised as a religion, on a par with other faiths.

2004 January-February - Celebrations marking 200 years of independence are marred by violent uprising against President Aristide. Rebels seize towns and cities; dozens are killed. Mr Aristide is forced into exile; an interim government takes over.

The Overthrow of Haiti’s Aristide: A Coup Made in the USA

Bringing Hell To Haiti - Part 1

Bringing Hell To Haiti - Part 2

Aristide Interview with Democracy Now!

Haiti: US Backing Overthrow of President

How Washington set the stage for Haiti’s uprising

Why they had to crush Aristide

Haiti's Democracy In Flames

The Coup Connection

Free Markets and Death Squads

Who Removed Aristide

2004 May - Severe floods in south, and in parts of neighbouring Dominican Republic, leave more than 2,000 dead or disappeared.

2004 June - First UN peacekeepers arrive, to take over security duties from US-led force and to help flood survivors.

UN Supports Death Squads

In Haiti Kill the Poor, Leave Right-Wing Death Squads Untouched

The UN in Haiti: Part of the problem, not the solution

U.N. Troops Accused of July 6th Massacre in Haiti's Cite Soleil

UN Peacekeeping Paramilitarism [in Haiti]

2004 July - International donors pledge more than $1bn in aid.

2004 September - Nearly 3,000 killed in flooding in the north, in the wake of tropical storm Jeanne.

late 2004 - Rising levels of deadly political and gang violence in the capital; armed gangs loyal to former President Aristide are said to be responsible for many killings.

2005 April - Prominent rebel leader Ravix Remissainthe is killed by police in the capital.

2005 July - Hurricane Dennis kills at least 45 people.

2006 February - General elections, the first since former President Aristide was overthrown in 2004. Rene Preval is declared the winner of the presidential vote after a deal is reached over spoiled ballot papers.

2006 June - A democratically-elected government headed by Prime Minister Jacques-Edouard Alexis takes office.

2006 September - Launch of a UN-run scheme to disarm gang members in return for grants, job training.

2006 October - US partially lifts an arms embargo, imposed in 1991.

2007 January - UN troops launch tough new offensive against armed gangs in Cite Soleil, one of the capital's largest and most violent shantytowns.

UN Occupation of Haiti Continues

U.N. occupation of Haiti intensifies