(Death toll from U.S. occupation 1915-1934: 15,000)
(Death toll from U.S.-backed Duvalier dynasty
(Death toll from U.S.-backed coup against Aristide 1991-1994: 4,000)
(Death toll from U.S.-backed
coup against Aristide and UN occupation 2004- : tens of thousands)
Instances of Use of United States Forces Abroad 1798-1993
1888 -- Haiti -- December 20. A display of
force persuaded the Haitian Government to give up an American steamer which had been seized on the charge of breach of blockade.
-- Haiti. U.S. forces sought to protect American lives and property on Navassa Island.
1914 -- Haiti -- January 29
to February 9, February 20 to 21, October 19. Intermittently U.S. naval forces protected American nationals in a time of rioting
1915-34 -- Haiti -- July 28, 1915, to August 15, 1934. U.S. forces maintained order during a period
of chronic and threatened insurrection.
FRANCOIS & JEAN CLAUDE DUVALIER
In 1957 Francois "Papa Doc" Duvalier became Haiti's President-For-Life, establishing a strategic relationship
with the US that lasted until 1971, when he was succeeded by his son Jean Claude "Baby Doc" Duvalier. During the 30 years
that they ruled with an iron hand, 60,000 Haitians were killed and countless more were tortured by the Duvaliers' Tonton Macoutes
death squads. While Haiti became the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere, the Duvaliers enriched themselves by stealing
foreign aid money. In 1980, for instance, the International Monetary Fund granted Haiti a $22 million budget supplement. Within
weeks, $16 million was "unaccounted for". Baby Doc made Haiti into a trans-shipment point for Colombian cocaine. Nevertheless,
as long as Papa and Baby Doc were anti-communists, they could do no wrong in the US government's eyes. Their regime finally
ended in 1986, when Baby Doc fled angry mobs of Haitians for asylum in France, with a fortune estimated at $400 million. It
has been estimated that under Baby Doc's rule 40,000 Haitians were murdered.
1964 - Duvalier declares himself president-for-life
and establishes a dictatorship with the help of the Tontons Macoute militia.
1971 - Duvalier dies and is succeeded
by his 19-year-old son, Jean-Claude, or "Baby Doc", who also declares himself president-for-life.
1986 - Baby Doc flees
Haiti in the wake of mounting popular discontent and is replaced by Lieutenant-General Henri Namphy as head of a governing
1988 - Leslie Manigat becomes president, but is ousted in a coup led by Brigadier-General Prosper Avril, who
installs a civilian government under military control.
Democracy, coup and intervention
1990 - Jean-Bertrand
Aristide elected president.
1991 - Aristide ousted in a coup led by Brigadier-General Raoul Cedras, triggering sanctions
by the US and the Organisation of American States.
Haiti 1986-1994: Who will rid me of this turbulent priest?Haiti’s Nightmare: The Cocaine Coup & The CIA ConnectionNoam Chomsky Traces Underpinnings Of Aristide's Ouster Back
To 1991-1994 CoupThe Attempted Character Assassination of Aristide
- UN imposes sanctions after the military regime rejects an accord facilitating Aristide's return.
1994 - Military
regime relinquishes power in the face of an imminent US invasion; US forces oversee a transition to a civilian government;
Emmanuel Constant: The United States Must Practice What It Preaches
About Not Harboring Terrorists1995 - UN peacekeepers begin to replace US troops; Aristide
supporters win parliamentary elections; Rene Preval elected in December to replace Aristide as president.
1996 - Preval
sworn in as president.
1997-99 - Serious political deadlock; new government named.
1999 - Preval declares that
parliament's term has expired and begins ruling by decree following a series of disagreements with deputies.
2000 November - Aristide elected president for a second non-consecutive term, amid allegations of irregularities.
July - Presidential spokesman accuses former army officers of trying to overthrow the government after armed men attack three
locations, killing four police officers.
2001 December - 30 armed men try to seize the National Palace in an apparent
coup attempt; 12 people are killed in the raid, which the government blames on former army members.
2002 July - Haiti
is approved as a full member of the Caribbean Community (Caricom) trade bloc.
2003 April - Voodoo recognised as a
religion, on a par with other faiths.
2004 January-February - Celebrations marking 200 years of independence are marred
by violent uprising against President Aristide. Rebels seize towns and cities; dozens are killed. Mr Aristide is forced into
exile; an interim government takes over.
The Overthrow of Haiti’s Aristide: A Coup Made in the
USA Bringing Hell To Haiti - Part 1Bringing Hell To Haiti - Part 2Aristide Interview with Democracy Now!Haiti: US Backing Overthrow of PresidentHow Washington set the stage for Haiti’s uprisingWhy they had to crush AristideHaiti's Democracy In FlamesThe Coup ConnectionFree Markets and Death SquadsWho Removed Aristide2004 May - Severe floods in south, and in parts of neighbouring
Dominican Republic, leave more than 2,000 dead or disappeared.
2004 June - First UN peacekeepers arrive, to take over
security duties from US-led force and to help flood survivors.
UN Supports Death SquadsIn Haiti Kill the Poor, Leave Right-Wing Death Squads UntouchedThe UN in Haiti: Part of the problem, not the solutionU.N. Troops Accused of July 6th Massacre in Haiti's Cite Soleil
UN Peacekeeping Paramilitarism [in Haiti]2004 July - International donors pledge more than $1bn
2004 September - Nearly 3,000 killed in flooding in the north, in the wake of tropical storm Jeanne.
2004 - Rising levels of deadly political and gang violence in the capital; armed gangs loyal to former President Aristide
are said to be responsible for many killings.
2005 April - Prominent rebel leader Ravix Remissainthe is killed by
police in the capital.
2005 July - Hurricane Dennis kills at least 45 people.
2006 February - General elections,
the first since former President Aristide was overthrown in 2004. Rene Preval is declared the winner of the presidential vote
after a deal is reached over spoiled ballot papers.
2006 June - A democratically-elected government headed by Prime
Minister Jacques-Edouard Alexis takes office.
2006 September - Launch of a UN-run scheme to disarm gang members in
return for grants, job training.
2006 October - US partially lifts an arms embargo, imposed in 1991.
January - UN troops launch tough new offensive against armed gangs in Cite Soleil, one of the capital's largest and most violent
UN Occupation of Haiti ContinuesU.N. occupation of Haiti intensifies