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(Death toll from U.S. invasion 1989: 9,000)

Instances of Use of United States Forces Abroad 1798-1993

1856 -- Panama, Republic of New Grenada -- September 19 to 22. U.S. forces landed to protect American interests during an insurrection.

1860 -- Colombia, Bay of Panama -- September 27 to October 8. Naval forces landed to protect American interests during a revolution.

1865 -- Panama -- March 9 and 10. U.S. forces protected the lives and property of American residents during a revolution.

1873 -- Colombia (Bay of Panama) -- May 7 to 22, September 23 to October 9. U.S. forces protected American interests during hostilities over possession of the government of the State of Panama.

1885 -- Panama (Colon) -- January 18 and 19. U.S. forces were used to guard the valuables in transit over the Panama Railroad, and the safes and vaults of the company during revolutionary activity. In March, April, and May in the cities of Colon and Panama, the forces helped reestablish freedom of transit during revolutionary activity.

1901 -- Colombia (State of Panama) -- November 20 to December 4. U.S. forces protected American property on the Isthmus and kept transit lines open during serious revolutionary disturbances.

1902 -- Colombia (State of Panama) -- September 17 to November 18. The United States placed armed guards on all trains crossing the Isthmus to keep the railroad line open, and stationed ships on both sides of Panama to prevent the landing of Colombian troops.

1903-14 -- Panama. U.S. forces sought to protect American interests and lives during and following the revolution for independence from Colombia over construction of the Isthmian Canal. With brief intermissions, United States Marines were stationed on the Isthmus from November 4, 1903, to January 21 1914 to guard American interests.

1904 -- Panama -- November 17 to 24. U.S. forces protected American lives and property at Ancon at the time of a threatened insurrection.

1912 -- Panama. Troops, on request of both political parties, supervised elections outside the Canal Zone.

1918-20 -- Panama. U.S. forces were used for police duty according to treaty stipulations, at Chiriqui, during election disturbances and subsequent unrest.

1925 -- Panama -- October 12 to 23. Strikes and rent riots led to the landing of about 600 American troops to keep order and protect American interests.

1988 -- Panama. In mid-March and April 1988, during a period of instability in Panama and as pressure grew for Panamanian military leader General Manuel Noriega to resign, the United States sent 1,000 troops to Panama, to "further safeguard the canal, U.S. lives, property and interests in the area." The forces supplemented 10,000 U.S. military personnel already in Panama.


Iraq: a Lesson from Panama Imperialism and Struggle for Sovereignty

The Invasion of Panama

Panama's Lessons

Panama: Background of U.S. invasion of 1989

The CIA's Greatest Hits: Panama

Panama's Resistance To U.S. Imperialism

U. S. Imperialism, Hands Off Latin America

Part VI: 1981-Present excerpted from the book Confession of an Economic Hit Man by John Perkins

The Resume of Manuel Noriega: The Most Famous Graduate of the School of Americas

U.S. Officials and Major Drug Traffickers: Manuel Noriega

The Panama Canal and the Legacy of Gunboat Diplomacy


The Panama Deception

Panama Invasion